If you are wondering “is alcoholism genetic?”, there are multiple studies that would confirm that it is. Various sources link alcoholism to several different genes. A few genes that contribute to alcoholism include ALDH2 and ADH1B.1
Is alcoholism genetic? Alcoholism is a hereditary addiction in some families. If your parent(s) battled alcoholism, you are four times more likely to develop the condition, According to The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Yet, environmental factors may also play a significant role in many cases.
Genes contribute 45%-65% to factors causing alcoholism, according to the National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information. While different genes are involved in addiction and alcoholism, two people can have the same level of risk even though they have different gene profiles.2
Now that we’ve answered “is alcoholism genetic?”, what about alcohol tolerance? Alcohol tolerance is a stage of Alcohol Use Disorder that causes your body to need larger doses of alcohol to achieve the same “high” feeling. While research proves a genetic basis for alcoholism, tolerance is not hereditary. You achieve alcohol tolerance by drinking alcohol repeatedly over a period of time.3
Alcohol intolerance is a state of adverse body reactions when you drink alcohol. Some common examples include skin flushing, stuffy nose, and more. This reaction results from having a gene that causes issues with metabolizing alcohol. Alcohol intolerance can be genetic, especially among people of Asian descent.
When considering the questions “is alcoholism genetic?”, and “what causes alcoholism?”, there are several relevant factors. There are several causes of alcoholism, including biological factors such as physiology and genetics. Scientists have noted that up to 51 genes in various chromosome regions can be attributed to alcohol dependence. Parents then pass these genes on to their children. These genes mean that the child is genetically predisposed to alcohol addiction – but that does not mean they will automatically fall into that late in life.
Environmental factors such as living close to people who drink alcohol, social factors including religion, culture, family, and work, and psychological factors like mental health conditions like depression, may also lead to alcoholism. People with mental health conditions such as depression tend to drink alcohol as an escape and slowly find themselves drinking more over time.
Studies of twins, adoptions, and other studies of families have been able to show links between genetics and alcoholism, further answering the question “is alcoholism genetic?”, while other studies involving alcohol and genetics include:4
Scientists bred two strains of mice, with one strain not genetically sensitive to alcohol, while the other was acutely sensitive to alcohol. These two groups of mice behaved differently when exposed to the same amount of alcohol. The sensitive mice passed out quickly and lost their inhibition compared to those genetically less sensitive to alcohol.
A genetic predisposition to alcoholism increases your chances of alcohol addiction in the following ways:
Your body has two enzymes associated with breaking down alcohol, ADH (Alcohol Dehydrogenase) and ALDH (Aldehyde Dehydrogenase). ADH helps break down alcohol into acetaldehyde before it is converted to acetate by other enzymes. A fast-acting ADH or a slow-acting ALDH can affect how a person metabolizes alcohol and, in turn, can have an effect on a person’s drinking habits.
Is alcoholism genetic? What about alcohol sensitivity? If you are highly sensitive to alcohol, you can develop various unpleasant physical symptoms when you drink such as itching, feverish feeling, or skin flushes. Someone who experiences these symptoms may be less likely to drink as much as someone insensitive to (or less affected by) alcohol.
Some people have a high tolerance for alcohol as compared to other people. These people are likely to drink more alcohol than those who are intolerant; hence, they have a higher risk of alcoholism.
Experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms when you quit or reduce your alcohol consumption may prompt you to quit alcohol, compared to someone who experiences the opposite. These withdrawal symptoms may include high blood pressure, seizures, irregular heartbeats, and more.
Alcohol affects the communication pathways in your brain and damages the liver, pancreas, heart, and more. If you have a parent who suffered severe organ damage from alcoholism, you are less likely to do the same.
The environment you work, live, or grow up in affects how you use and think about alcohol. Some of these factors are:
Is alcoholism genetic? How does growing up around alcohol impact a person’s development? Growing up in a household with an alcoholic parent can have both psychological and physical effects on the children. Exposing your children to alcoholic behaviors like abuse can change how they view alcohol. A parent’s alcoholism condition may also contribute to feelings of anger, guilt, embarrassment, depression, or confusion, and can make children question their self worth.
When you make it easier for the person battling alcoholism, they never get better. It begins with a desire to help a family member, loved one, or another person with an alcohol addiction, but develops into behaviors that enable the alcoholic to continue their addiction, rather than moving them in the direction of quitting.
In an enabling environment, the alcoholic never has to face the negative consequences of their addiction and therefore never seeks treatment, and recovery becomes much less likely.
An environment that normalizes problematic drinking and alcoholic behaviors increases the risk of addiction.
Now that we’ve considered the question “is alcoholism genetic?”, we can discuss the relevant additional risk factors for alcoholism. The following are some factors correlated with a greater risk of developing alcoholism:
It can be scary to notice a pattern of drinking among family members or relatives, but there are ways to avoid developing an addiction yourself, including:
Despite the fact that the answer to “is alcoholism genetic?” proves that there are indeed genetic predispositions to alcoholism, you or your loved one do not have to undergo addiction alone. Our experienced and compassionate staff at Soledad House can provide you with the necessary guidance to regain autonomy over your life.
At Soledad House, you’ll work closely with a team of professional health care providers as they help you to navigate through your wellness journey, including counseling, detox, and treatment. While recovery is not an easy process, we will walk alongside you toward a drug-free and sober life. Please schedule an appointment with our team for more information on medications, procedures, self-care, or therapy that can help.6